Citicoline improves visual working memory - Knowledge

Citicoline improves visual working memory

Oct 13, 2023 / Author: China Glutathione suppliers & NMN manufacturers

Psychomotor performance can be used to assess central nervous system arousal and cognitive function through the necessary information elicited by the sensory organs in response to different stimuli. In addition, visual working memory reflects an individual’s short-term memory ability. Psychological and mental stress due to the production of oxidative free radicals has been linked to stimulation by malondialdehyde (MDA).

Some drugs may modulate different neurotransmitters through antioxidant effects and free radical scavenging activities, thereby improving psychomotor performance and working memory. Citicoline is a nucleoside derivative that has good effects on protecting neurons and enhancing human memory and cognitive functions.


A double-blind study included 40 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 22, including 22 men and 18 women. All volunteers were divided into 2 groups, one group was given placebo (starch capsule, 500 mg/d, n=20), and the other group received citicoline treatment (500 mg/d, n=20) for 2 week. Each volunteer's alertness, visual working memory, and oxidative stress markers were assessed before dosing and after 2 weeks of treatment. Alertness was assessed using total reaction time (TRT), processing time (PT), recognition reaction time (RRT), and motor reaction time (MRT), and critical fusion frequency of flash (CFFF) and short-term working memory accuracy were assessed.

This study demonstrated the effect of citicoline on psychomotor performance and working memory accuracy. After 2 weeks of treatment, placebo had no significant effect on working memory and alertness (P>0.05), while the TRT in the citicoline group , RRT, MRT and working memory accuracy were significantly improved (P<0.01), but critical flicker frequency (CFFD) was not significantly improved (P=0.30).

Compared with placebo, citicoline significantly improved psychomotor alertness, arousal, and visual working memory and significantly improved oxidative stress in normal healthy volunteers.


Al-Kuraishy HM, Al-Gareeb AI. Citicoline Improves Human Vigilance and Visual Working Memory: The Role of Neuronal Activation and Oxidative Stress[J]. Basic Clin Neurosci, 2020, Jul-Aug, 11(4): 423-432.

Tag: Citicoline , citicoline sodium

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