Extensive Physiological Functions of Glutathione - Knowledge

Extensive Physiological Functions of Glutathione

Aug 22, 2023 / Author: China Glutathione suppliers & NMN manufacturers

Glutathione is a low-molecular-weight peptide with the most abundant sulfhydryl groups in animal, plant and microbial cells. It has been widely used in the fields of medicine, food and cosmetics.

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Glutathione (GSH) entering the blood circulation can be directly absorbed into cells by some tissues, and can also be degraded into r-glutamyl amino acid (amino acid from free amino acids in the extracellular fluid of leukocytes) and cysteinylglycine, which are then degraded into cysteine and glycine by dipeptidase or transported into cells in the form of dipeptide and then degraded into cysteine and glycine . Most mammalian kidneys, livers, small intestines, and lungs have high r-GT and dipeptidase activities, and they are the main organs for removing GSH in the circulation system. In cells, the constituent amino acids of GSH generate glutathione under the catalysis of r-glutamyl cyclase, r-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase.

GSH synthesis is regulated by its own feedback inhibition of r-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The liver is the main site for the synthesis of GSH in the body. Under the catalysis of glutathione sulfur transferase (GST), intracellular glutathione can combine with active electrophilic groups and organic hydroperoxides (X) generated inside and outside the cell to form a GSH-S-complex, After a series of reactions, N-acetyl-Cys-(X) is produced and then transported out of the cells and excreted from the body. While GSH scavenges intracellular free radicals, peroxides, and ROOH, 2 molecules of GSH are transformed into oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and GSSG is reduced to GSH. The above reactions form the r-glutamyl cycle.

The physiological functions of glutathione are very extensive, and its main functions are:

(1) To remove free radicals, peroxides, heavy metals and aflatoxins and other toxic substances;

(2) Participate in the transport of amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and other neutral amino acids);

(3) It is beneficial to the absorption of iron, selenium and calcium. Glutathione can also make the peroxidized fatty acid in the feed return to normal fat during or after absorption;

(4) Protect the epithelium of the gastrointestinal mucosa and prevent damage to the intestinal mucosa due to inflammation, local ischemia, and oxidative substances;

(5) Store and provide its constituent amino acids (especially cysteine);

(6) Participate in the synthesis of proteins and DNA;

(7) As a reducing substance, it is beneficial to the reduction of vitamin E and vitamin C, maintains the activity of sulfhydrylase, and can be used as the prosthetic group of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, and also the coenzyme of glyoxalase and triose phosphate dehydrogenase;

(8) Glutathione plays an important role in the immune system's anti-infection and inflammatory response, and it plays an important role in the proliferation and normal function of lymphocytes;

(9) Participate in the metabolism of insulin, reduce the activity of estrogen, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

Tag: Glutathione GSH

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