Aug 21, 2023 / Author: China Glutathione suppliers & NMN manufacturers
Regardless of the age of the body, muscles are always worn out during exercise. In order to maintain the vitality of muscles in a young body, muscle stem cells will exert the ability of muscle regeneration and repair damaged muscles.
As we age, these muscle stem cells gradually lose their ability to regenerate muscle. Once a muscle is overused or damaged, it is difficult to recover.
"Nature" research: Regaining the regenerative ability of muscle stem cells is the key to repairing muscle damage. NMN synthase can be used to repair damaged muscles and promote muscle regeneration.
Dr. Ratnayake's team at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, published an article in the journal Nature: Revealing a means of triggering the regeneration of muscle stem cells to heal muscle damage.
The researchers found that macrophages—immune cells that gather at sites of injury or infection in the body to remove debris and promote healing—secrete NMN's synthetase enzyme NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) to stimulate muscle stem cell regeneration, And to restore its athletic ability after severe muscle trauma.
The researchers used zebrafish as experimental subjects. (Zebrafish is a common model for studying cell regeneration. It has many advantages such as fast reproduction speed, at least 70% gene sharing with humans, and transparent body for observing the regeneration of living muscles.
The researchers observed that a specific type of macrophages gathered at the site of zebrafish muscle injury and "hugged" the muscle stem cells. Once the muscle stem cells started to proliferate and regenerate, these macrophages continued to "hug" the next muscle stem cells. , Start the regeneration of muscle stem cells, and soon the muscle wound will heal.
Note: Macrophages (yellow) "hug" muscle stem cells (blue), and the two keep in contact for a long time, and the muscle stem cells proliferate and regenerate.
Macrophages induce muscle stem cell regeneration
The researchers then determined that macrophages secrete a protein called nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) at sites of muscle injury.
NAMPT is an enzyme essential for NAD+ metabolism that catalyzes the production of NMN. When the researchers genetically manipulated these macrophages to be unable to secrete NAMPT, they observed that the macrophages "hugged" the muscle stem cells but failed to initiate muscle regeneration.
However, when human-secreted NAMPT was added to zebrafish tanks, the muscle regeneration response was restored. This suggests that NAMPT is required for zebrafish muscle regeneration.
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