May 10, 2023 / Author: China Glutathione suppliers & NMN manufacturers
Adenosine is an important intermediate in the synthesis of important physiologically active substances such as ATP, adenine, adenylic acid, and vidarabine. Therefore, adenosine has a physiological regulatory effect on many systems of the body, including the cardiovascular system, skin system , immune system, central nervous system, etc.
1. Cardiovascular system
Adenosine can directly enter the myocardium and undergo phosphorylation to generate adenosine acid, which participates in myocardial energy metabolism, and also participates in dilating coronary vessels to increase blood flow. As a strong vasoactive substance, it can also dilate systemic blood vessels and cause blood pressure to drop. In addition, adenosine has obvious negative chronotropic and negative conduction effects on the heart, so that the heart rate of living animals slows down, and the activity frequency of isolated animal hearts decreases, which is obviously dose-dependent, and can antagonize the effect of catecholamines on the heart. The positive chronotropic effect of the heart can be used to treat supraventricular tachycardia. Adenosine, as an endogenous purine nucleoside, can slow the atrioventricular node conduction, block the atrioventricular node reentry pathway, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) (with or without pre-excitation syndrome ) The patient returned to normal sinus rhythm.
2. Skin system
Adenosine, as the precursor of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the intracellular transport energy carrier, supplies the necessary energy for skin cells and maintains the normal metabolism of skin cells. Adenosine can prevent free radicals from oxidizing proteins, thereby preventing tissue loss of elasticity and skin relaxation. Anti-wrinkle, smooth skin and tighten pores, and relieve capillary blood circulation, with the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis. A certain concentration of adenosine can inhibit the activity of B16 melanocytes and play a whitening effect. Adenosine regulates innate and adaptive immune responses by binding to the corresponding G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane. It regulates the differentiation and maturation of immune cells and the release of cytokines and chemokines, thereby inhibiting inflammation and protecting the surrounding damaged tissues function of normal cells. Adenosine has the function of promoting blood circulation. It can stimulate hair growth, promote the production of FGF-7 factor and thicker hair, and play a role in hair growth and anti-hair loss. It can also be used as an anti-aging importer, which can replenish skin energy, significantly improve skin elasticity, promote skin cell metabolism, and prevent hair loss. The relaxation of skin tissue can reorganize the skin structure, so that the skin can restore its elasticity by tightening and narrowing pores. Its main functions in skin care products are skin conditioners, moisturizers, and antioxidants. It has a low risk factor and is relatively safe. It generally has no effect on pregnant women and has no acne-causing properties.
3. Immune system
In terms of tumor immunity, adenosine is an important molecule that regulates peripheral immune responses and maintains body homeostasis. Adenosine mediates and inhibits the immune response of various immune cells (such as T cells, NK cells, DC cells, etc.) by binding to adenosine receptors expressed on immune cells. Among them, A2AR is a typical G protein-coupled receptor with high affinity for adenosine, which is expressed on immune cells such as T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes and dendritic cells. Adenosine binding to A2AR receptors activates canonical G proteins and triggers the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. The ATP-adenosine pathway is also a key pathway in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the tumor immune microenvironment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) released by stressed or dying cells provides signals to activate inflammation, while hydrolysis of eATP to extracellular adenosine suppresses the immune response.
4. Central nervous system
Adenosine has sedative, hypnotic and antiepileptic effects on the central nervous system. In various regions of the brain, adenosine can also inhibit the spontaneous discharge of neurons. For example, when adenosine microelectrophoresis is injected into the cerebral cortex of rats, the firing frequency of neurons decreases. Endogenous adenosine can promote sleep. Feldberg and Sherwood first discovered in 1954 that adenosine has a hypnotic effect on cats. In 1999, Basheer et al. injected adenosine into the basal forebrain of rats to reduce arousal. It is currently believed that both A1R and A2AR can mediate the sleep-promoting effect induced by adenosine.
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